1st SPE Comparative Study

1st SPE Comparative Study The problem from the SPE-9723-PA paper is a basic test for three-phase three-dimensional Black-Oil modelling technique. The problem description can be found in: Odeh, A. 1981 Comparison of Solutions to a Three-Dimensional Black-Oil Reservoir Simulation Problem. JPT 33, 13-25. DOI:10.2118/9723-PA. We consider only case 2 of the comarative study with variable bubble-point pressure. The problem involves oil production from a three-layer initially undersaturated reservoir. Read more ...

2nd SPE Comparative Study

2nd SPE Comparative Study The problem from the SPE-10489-PA paper is a test for three-phase Black-Oil modelling technique. The problem description can be found in: Weinstein H.G. et al. 1986 Second comparative solution project: A three-phase coning study. J. Pet. Tech. 38(3): 345-353. DOI:10.2118/10489-PA . The problem involves oil production from saturated reservoir with gas cap. Initial oil and gas densities are nearly equal. There are 150 grid blocks in total (radial grid: 10*1*15). The porosity and permeability for every layer are given. Read more ...

6th SPE Comparative Study

6th SPE Comparative Study The problem from the SPE-18741-PA paper is a test for modelling fractured petroleum reservoirs. The problem description can be found in: Firoozabadi, A., Thomas, L.K. 1989 Sixth SPE Comparative Solution Project: Dual-Porosity Simulators // J. Pet. Tech. 43(6). 710-764. DOI: 10.2118/18741-PA. It involves a 2D cross-section two-phase (water injection) or three-phase (depletion) study. In the case of water injection, the injection well is placed on the left and the production well is placed on the right. The oil displacement results in a rapid water breakthrough to the production well through the fractures media. Read more ...

7th SPE Comparative Study

7th SPE Comparative Study The problem from the SPE-21221-MS paper is a test for modelling pressure drop in horizontal wells due to the wellbore friction. The problem description can be found in Nghiem, L. et al. 1991. Seventh SPE Comparative Solution Project: Modelling of Horizontal Wells in Reservoir Simulation. SPE Symposium on Reservoir Simulation, 17-20 February, Anaheim, California DOI: 10.2118/21221-MS. This example involves production of hydrocarbons from a horizontal well where conning tendencies are important. Read more ...

9th SPE Comparative Study

9th SPE Comparative Study The problem from the SPE-29110 paper is an extended test for three-phase three-dimensional Black-Oil modelling technique. The problem description can be found in: Killough, J.E. 1995 Ninth SPE Comparative Solution Project: A Reexamination of Black-Oil Simulation. 13th SPE Symposium on Reservoir Simulation, San Antonio, Feb 12-15, 1995 DOI:10.2118/29110-MS. The problem involves oil production from a dipping initially undersaturated reservoir. There are 9000 grid blocks in total (rectilinear grid: 24*25*15). Read more ...

10th SPE Comparative Study (model 1)

10th SPE Comparative Study (model 1) The 1st model from the SPE-72469-PA paper is a two-phase immiscible dead oil-dry gas comparative study. The problem description can be found in: Cristie M.A. et al. 2001 Tenth SPE Comparative Solution Project: A Comparison of Upscaling Techniques. SPE Res. Eval. Eng. 4(4):308-317. DOI: 10.2118/72469-PA. The problem involves a vertical cross-section with highly heterogeneous permeability distribution. Porosity distribution is uniform. Initially, the reservoir is filled with oil. There are two wells on opposite sides of the cross-section, completed in every layer. Read more ...

The Egg Model

The Egg Model The egg model description used in this example can be found in: Jansen J.D. et al. 2014 The egg model: a geological ensemble for reservoir simulation. Geosci. Data J. 1. 192-195. DOI: 10.1002/gdj3.21. This two-phase problem involves oil production from a heterogeneous oil reservoir using waterflooding technique. There are 18553 active grid blocks in total. The permeability distribution is heterogeneous whereas the porosity distribution is uniform. There are 4 producers operating under constant bottom-hole pressure and 8 water injectors with a given injection rate. Read more ...

Test for heat conduction

Test for heat conduction This example involves numerical solution of the discontinuity break-down problem for the heat conduction equation. The fluid flow is not involved in this simulation. The break-down problem is one-dimensional self-similar problem. At the initial moment of time the temperature distribution has a single discontinuity. The temperature distributions on either side of the discontinuity are uniform. The heat conduction results in the discontinuity smearing. We consider a column (tube) filled with impermeable rocks. Read more ...

Benchmark study for CO2 storage

Benchmark study for CO2 storage This is the benchmark study 3.1 published in Class H. et al. A benchmark study on problems related to CO2 storage in geologic formations. Comput Geosci 2009, 13(4):409-434. DOI: 10.1007/s10596-009-9146-x. The problem is based on a geological model of the Johansen formation. The computational domain is an extracted part of the model. The lateral extension of the domain is approximately 9600*8900 m. The domain comprises 9 layers of grid blocks all representing the high permeable sandstones in the Johansen formation. Read more ...

Heat sweep in a vertical fracture

Heat sweep in a vertical fracture This example is from the SPE-12099-PA paper: Pruess K. et al. 1984 Thermal effects of reinjection in geothermal reservoirs with major vertical fractures. J. Pet. Tech. 36(10): 1567-1578. DOI:10.2118/12099-PA . The problem concerns non-isothermal flow of water through a vertical fracture induced by fluid production and cold water injection. Heat exchange between fracture and confining impermeable rocks is simulated in full by introducing impermeable grid blocks in which only heat conduction equation is solved. There are 2400 grid blocks in total (rectilinear grid: 12*20*10). Read more ...

Five-spot geothermal production/injection

Five-spot geothermal production/injection This example is from the SPE-10509-PA paper: Pruess K. et al. 1985 A practical method for modelling fluid and heat flow in fractures porous media. SPE J. 25(1): 14-26. DOI:10.2118/10509-PA. The 2D areal problem concerns non-isothermal flow of water and steam in fractured reservoir. The fluid transport occurs only through the fractures, whereas the matrix blocks are impermeable. At the initial moment of time the reservoir is saturated with hot water at 300 C and at high pressure above water boiling pressure. The fluid extraction though the production wells results in the pressure drop down and water boiling. Read more ...

Realistic model 1 (Black-oil Two-phase)

Realistic model 1 (Black-oil Two-phase) This problem demonstrates MUFITS capabilities in realistic engineering-like simulations of petroleum reservoirs. The domain is a small region of an oil field operated under pressure depletion. This is a two-phase problem without hydrocarbon gas. The reservoir model comprises 6036 active grid blocks and 10 wells. There are 4 layers with different rock properties, fluid properties and saturation functions in every layer. The relative permeability and capillary pressure end-point scaling option is used to match the history production rates. Read more ...

CO2 injection in the 10th SPE reservoir

CO<sub>2</sub> injection in the 10th SPE reservoir This example is based on the 10th SPE comparative solution project reservoir. We consider the flow only in the 50th layer of the reservoir. Initially the layer is saturated by pure water with uniform distribution of temperature. The initial distribution of pressure is a linear function along the y-axis. The two boundaries of the reservoir which are parallel to the y-axis are considered as fully insulated. We fix the initial values of pressure and temperature at one boundary parallel to the x-axis and we inject pure heated CO2 through the second boundary. Read more ...

Radial flow from a CO2 injection well

Radial flow from a CO<sub>2</sub> injection well This example is from the paper: Pruess, K. et al. 2004. Code Intercomparison Builds Confidence in Numerical Simulation Models for Geologic Disposal of CO2. Energy, 29(9-10): 1431-1444. DOI:10.1016/j.energy.2004.03.077. The problem concerns radial flow form a CO2 injection well into a brine formation. Read more ...

CO2 discharge along a fault zone

CO<sub>2</sub> discharge along a fault zone This example is from the paper: Pruess, K. et al. 2002. Multiphase flow dynamics during CO2 injection into saline aquifers// Envirom. Geol. 42, 282-295. DOI:10.1007/s00254-001-0498-3. This 1D problem concerns a CO2 leakage scenario. A vertical flow of supercritical CO2 from a deep formation along a fault zone is considered. The salinity of brine is neglected. The flow results in a vertical displacement of water by CO2 over an early period of time and complete evaporation of water into gas phase at a later time. Read more ...

CO2 injection in a 2D layered brine formation

CO<sub>2</sub> injection in a 2D-layered brine formation This example is from the paper: Pruess, K. et al. 2004. Code Intercomparison Builds Confidence in Numerical Simulation Models for Geologic Disposal of CO2. Energy, 29(9-10): 1431-1444. DOI:10.1016/j.energy.2004.03.077. This is a sketch scenario of CO2 injection at the Sleipner field. The problem involves a buoyancy-driven flow caused by injection of supercritical CO2 at the bottom of a formation buried at 1 km depth. The formation contains high-permeable sandstones and thin shale interlayers. Read more ...

CO2 injection in Johansen formation (Example-H4)

CO<sub>2</sub> injection in Johansen formation (Example-H4) The example-H4 concerns simulation of CO2 injection in the Johansen formation using a real-scale geological model of the formation. We use the “sector model with heterogeneous rock properties”, which can be downloaded at www.sintef.no/Projectweb/MatMorA/Downloads/Johansen/. The model comprises 11 layers of grid blocks. There are 5 vertical faults in the model. Read more ...

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